On Chuck and Carrot Mobs: Mapping the Connections Between Participatory Culture and Public Participation

One of my proudest moments at the Futures of the Entertainment 4 conference was moderating a session on Transmedia for Social Change, which closed off the first day of the event. This panel brought together a number of people who I have encounter recently through my research on the relations between participatory culture and public participation: Stephen Duncombe – NYU, author of Dream: Re-Imagining Progressive Politics in the Age of Fantasy (The New Press); Andrew Slack – The Harry Potter Alliance; Noessa Higa – Visionaire Media; Lorraine Sammy – Co-creator Racebending; and Jedidiah Jenkins-Director of Public & Media Relations, Invisible Children.

For many attending this event, their discussion of new forms of activism that have emerged around the borders of transmedia entertainment were particularly eye opening While we were able to draw connections across these various projects, none of the panelists had met before and most did not know what the others were doing. It was exciting to see the shift in tone at the conference as we moved from talking about business plans to talking about human rights and social justice. I wanted to share the video of this session with you here.

During my introduction to the panel, I referenced the research we’ve begun to do trying to better understand how engagement with participatory culture, especially with fandom, may be teaching the skills and creating identities which can be applied to campaigns for social change. This project has launched since my move to California and is being conducted jointly with researchers at USC, MIT, and Tufts. What follows is the first of a series of reports on this still new research initiative, written by members of my team. Anna Van Someren, who wrote this first installment, joined the team having already served as the production manager on Project New Media Literacies, and with a background in media production, media literacy instruction, and social activism. Here, she gives an overview of what we are trying to do.

On Chuck and Carrot Mobs: Mapping the Connections Between Participatory Culture and Public Participation

by Anna Van Someren

I was on my 8th (excruciating) rep, struggling with some kind of bowflex-looking machine when my personal trainer asked what I do for work. As usual, I had the fleeting wish that I could say something short and concrete, something like “preschool teacher” or “novelist”. Because really, did this woman care any more than the typical dentist who asks such questions with both hands inside your mouth? Could I finally come up with something a little less opaque than “researcher at MIT”? If I did, could I for once muster the self-discipline it takes not to ramble incomprehensibly?

I tried a new approach, and asked if she had a favorite television show. “Battlestar Galactica!” – her face lit up as she described the Starbuck costume her friend was helping her create for Halloween. “Well, say a Battlestar Galactica fan group became interested in doing some work for social change, work that maybe addresses an issue brought up by the show. The group I’m working with is looking at how people who organize around a story they love, and then decide to take some kind of public action.” She seemed genuinely interested, so I continued with more detail during front lunges. I think I may have gotten a bit rambly, but I’ll try not to here.

As readers of this blog know, Henry has moved to LA and is now the Provost’s Professor of Communications, Journalism, and Cinematic Art at the University of Southern California. Although he has relinquished his role as principal investigator at MIT’s Center for Future Civic Media (funded by the Knight Foundation), his work on participatory culture and civic engagement has spawned a new research project supported in part by the center. This project is bi-coastal; on the east coast we have myself, research advisor Clement Chau and research assistant Flourish Klink. Representing the west coast out at USC with Henry we have research director Sangita Shresthova (CMS alum ’03) along with more than a dozen Annenberg School students whose work relates directly to our research interests.

Our early conversations circled around the skills needed to become involved in public discourse. We discussed emerging forms of engagement, such as the Carrotmob project, which might be considered civic because of its socially beneficial goal of protecting the environment. Carrotmob organizes competitions in which local businesses pledge to make ecological improvements to their practices. The business with the best pledge enjoys an environmentally-motivated flash mob: ‘carrotmobbers’ receive instructions via blog posts and twitter about where and when to show up and spend.

The ‘Finale & a Footlong’ Save Chuck campaign is another recent initiative working to leverage consumer power. In April 2009, organizers mobilized fans of the television show Chuck to buy footlong sandwiches at Subway, a main sponsor, on the night of the show’s finale. Fans were instructed to leave a note in the Subway suggestion box mentioning the campaign, and Chuck star Zach Levi described it as “a way for non-Nielson fans to show their love of the show by directly supporting one of Chuck‘s key advertisers”.

These two projects have entirely different goals, and some might say Save Chuck is a far cry from civic engagement, but it’s interesting to note that the skills and strategies being used are so similar. We began to wonder if participants in campaigns like Save Chuck might stand to gain some of the skills and knowledge needed to become active citizens. With so many young people so engaged with popular culture, this potential is critical to understand. In Convergence Culture, Henry describes how popular culture can function as a civic playground, where lower stakes allow for a greater diversity of opinions than tolerated in political arenas. “One way that popular culture can enable a more engaged citizenry is by allowing people to play with power on a microlevel …popular culture may be preparing the way for a more meaningful public culture.”

Of course, there are differing definitions of what an ‘engaged citizenry’ looks like. CIRCLE, the Center for Information and Research on Civic Engagement, works with three primary categories: civic activities, electoral activities, and political voice activities. In Civic Life Online, Kate Raynes-Goldie and Luke Walker define civic engagement broadly and simply as “any activity aimed at improving one’s community”. In his book Bowling Alone, sociologist Robert Putnam considers civic engagement to be on the decline, and bemoans the social ties we’ve lost now that we spend more time “isolated” in front of the television. Some share his pessimism, worrying that the millennial generation lacks an interest in the workings of government, but it’s important to remember that we’re not talking about something static or stabilized. In their paper Young Citizens and Civic Learning: Two Paradigms of Citizenship in the Digital Age Lance Bennett, Alison Rank and Christopher Wells remind us that “citizenship is a dynamic social construction that reflects changing social and political conditions.”

So how does the dimension of popular culture fit into our understanding of citizenship? Voting, joining a political party, or doing community service are concrete, measurable activities that have long been defined as civic. What does loving a television show have to do with any of this? It’s helpful here to consider two opposing views of democracy described by Stephen Coleman in Civic Life Online. Although he’s talking specifically about youth e-citizenship here, he offers a useful model, describing the conflict between democracy viewed as “an established and reasonably just system, with which young people should be encouraged to engage” and as “a political as well as cultural aspiration, most likely to be realized through networks in which young people engage with one another”. The second view is expansive; it describes a realm where citizens are empowered not only to participate in the public arena, but to shape it. It’s a view that does not contain activity within a strictly political sphere, but embraces cultural citizenship. This aligns well with Peter Levine’s definition of civic engagement as not only political activism, deliberation, and problem-solving, but also cultural production, or participation in shaping a culture.

If we want to see how engagement with popular culture can fuel social action, Loraine Sammy and her activities with racebending.com provide a rich case study. Fans of Nickelodeon’s Avatar: the Last Airbender animation series were frustrated and disappointed by the casting process for the live-action movie version. Paramount cast the main characters, who are Asian in the original series, with white actors. Avatar fans came together to create the LiveJournal-based Aang Ain’t White campaign, which attempted to pressure Paramount with a letter-writing campaign. Loraine, who spoke on the Transmedia for Social Change panel at Futures of Entertainment 4, helped grow Aang Ain’t White into the racebending movement, “a coalition and community dedicated to encouraging fair casting practices”. She and other participants volunteer their time, talents and skills to advocate on behalf of this cause, which has now reached beyond the Avatar movie and may begin to play a watchdog role in Hollywood.

There are so many aspects we want to explore about the racebending community, and others like it. It’s intriguing to think about how fiction and fantasy can captivate us on an emotional level, providing a narrative structure that can motivate us to seek change in the real world. We’re also curious about how individuals develop their identities as citizens – is it possible that participants in the Save Chuck campaign were developing a sense of empowerment and efficacy in the world – exercising their civic muscles, as it were? Our primary interest right now lies with the nature of participatory culture communities, like racebending.

We consider a participatory culture to be one where:

  1. there are relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement
  2. there is strong support for creating and sharing one’s creations with others
  3. there is some type of informal mentorship whereby what is known by the most experienced is passed along to novices
  4. members believe their contributions matter
  5. members feel some degree of social connection with one another

How do these characteristics work together to encourage and support civic engagement? To find out, we’ll be looking at participatory culture communities engaged in some type of social or public action. We’re specifically interested in groups which originally gelled around shared interest in popular culture and then become somehow involved in public discourse. Racebending is an excellent example, and is one of our planned case studies, along with the Harry Potter Alliance, Invisible Children, Browncoats, Anonymous, and possibly the hacktivism inspired by Cory Doctorow’s novel Little Brother.

This winter we’ll be conducting interviews with members and founders of these groups, asking questions about their operations, their membership, and their activities. By spring we hope to have a stronger grasp on our research question, how do the characteristics of participatory culture environments support the kinds of social learning, deliberation, debate, and advocacy practices that allow entry into a shared public discourse? In order to share our thoughts and findings in advance of our white paper, we’ll be posting updates here. This introduction marks the start of our series, so stay tuned for more from our team, and please share your ideas, critiques, and comments.

If you know of other groups or projects who are deploying fan culture/popular culture as a springboard for social change, please let us know. We are trying to cast a wide net right now to identify examples which might help us better understand these emerging forms of activism. We are especially interested in examples from outside the United States.

If you are interested in this discussion of civic engagement and participatory culture, you might also want to check out this video produced by the MacArthur Foundation and showcasing the thinkin of Joe Kahne, who is part of the new research hub MacArthur is creating to think about these issues.

Joe Kahne on Civic Participation Online and Off from Spotlight on Vimeo.


  1. cultural-learnings.com says:

    Really excited to read more about this project in the months ahead.

    And since you asked, I know that the campaign to save Jericho, which started with sending nuts to the network as an act of protest, in time branched out into sending Nuts overseas to American Troops as well as supporting Greensburg, Kansas (which offered a real world mirror of the show’s small Kansas town) following a devastating Tornado.

  2. Well done, Anna. This is a fascinating introduction to a timely and exciting project. I can’t wait to hear more about your work.

  3. RussFrancis says:

    Interesting stuff Anna. Just been reading Civic Life Online and thinking about participatory pedagogies again. It’s great to see some of the personalities involved and hearing about these emerging projects.

    Very interested in the identity formation issue. This quote from Marina Ber intrigued me and I wondered if there is any supporting evidence from you’re case studies that suggests this is actually happening.

    ‘While participation in virtual life does not replace traditional civic actions, research shows that adults are more likely to vote and be engaged in the civic sphere if, as youth, they were involved in community-based organizations or extracurricular activities. As the Internet is becoming a new way for youth to form community based organizations and to spend a big portion of their after-school time, it is plausible that future research will show that youth who are more active on-line will also grow into more engaged citizens. (p. 141)

  4. What they really need to ban are typos. Sorry about all of them in the comment above!

  5. I love what is being said here. Its a good sign that young people are more than willing to forfeit the traditional American dream for more purpose in their lives. We have to help them understand that the undercurrent of desire is what they have to try to harp on. Showing that through media in an attractive way, rebranding is an adventure and it don’t have to be mutually exclusive.

  6. Many people-,many opinions.

  7. This is great! I think its amazing when the community gets together. I think there is no limit to what we can do together. I do alot of community service in my spare time to try to help. Thanks

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