How to Watch a Fan-Vid

I am always fascinated when some bit of bottom-up generated “content” starts to get momentum and gain greater public visibility. This past few weeks, I have been observing a ground-swell of interest in a Star Trek fan video set to Nine Inch Nails’s “Closer.” Many of you will have already seen this video. It has already been featured by Cory Doctorow at Boing Boing, by Susie Bright, and by Salon‘s VideoDog among others.

As someone who has done work in the past on Star Trek fans, I have received multiple pointers to this video from friends all over the world. Many of the people who sent it to me and certainly many of the bloggers who have pointed to it seem to have little or no awareness that there is a much larger tradition of fan-made videos or that the video makers, T. Jonsey and Killa have produced a larger body of work that circulates within the fanvid community. As artists, they are known for their sophisticated techniques and intelligent use of appropriated materials as well as for their diversity of approaches to their subject matter.

It is the nature of YouTube that the work which appears there could come from almost anywhere and that it is often consumed outside of its originating content: YouTube is the place right now where work travels from one grassroots community or subculture to another. There are real advantages to such a site since it results in cross-influences and more innovation, experimentation, and diversity, yet there are also losses to this process of decoupling amateur media from its original contexts of production and consumption.

Technical Innovation and Grassroots Media

Given that I have been following the development of fan-made music videos for more than fifteen years now, I thought it might be helpful if I spelled out some of what I saw when I looked at this particular segment. Through the years, I have watched dozens of hours of these videos, produced within a broad range of fandoms. In fact, my book, Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture, published in 1992, already contains a full chapter tracing the aesthetics and production practices surrounding fan music videos.

At the time I wrote that chapter, fan music videos were made using two vcrs and patch cords. The only real way for most participants to edit the material was through transferring from one machine to the other. The biggest challenges artists faced were rollback and rainbow lines. Making videos under these conditions took a great deal of preplanning and an even greater amount of patience. The best video artists were perfectionists who would redo their projects many times to insure the smoothest transitions. The typical video could take six to eight hours to produce and more elaborate ones might take a great deal longer. Despite these technical limitations, some of the top video makers produced many hours of these videos which they would show primarily at fan conventions. There was some limited distribution — they would personally copy the videos one by one for people who asked really nicely. They actively discouraged recopying of their material to pass to others because it would further degrade the quality of their work but of course, a good deal of underground trading of this content took place. Digital production tools have allowed for greater formal complexity and visual sophistication, including layering of images through lap dissolves, superimposition, multiple frame shots, and other digital manipulations, subtle manipulations of speed, lip-syncing of words and images and other forms of “mickeymousing,” and so forth.

Fifteen years ago, I was presenting the work of these video makers at places like Interval Computing and the MIT Media Lab arguing that we should be paying attention to what these amateur media makers were doing when it was hard, nearly impossible, to accomplish so that we might predict affordances that should be built into the next generation of media tools. Today, we are seeing amateur media makers everywhere. Sites like YouTube have emerged to support their work and there is a public interested in seeing amateur-made work almost without regard to its origins or genre.

The Aesthetics of Fan Music Videos

I wonder if this particular song video would have generated the buzz that it has if it was not set to the music of Nine Inch Nails. The urban cool and the rough-hewn images of this video contrast sharply with people’s expectations about the aesthetics of Star Trek fan art. In popular mythology, Trekkers are geeks, not rockers. The earliest fan music videos might have reconfirmed those stereotypes: the most commonly used songs were slow-paced and sappy, pop not rock, though artists explained this was in part because of the difficulty of doing rapid edits using the tools that they have had at their disposal. As these fans have embraced new digital tools, the overall pace of fan made videos has quickened. This, and the emergence of a younger generation of fans with taste for alternative music, has broadened the choice of songs. We are seeing many more hard-edged songs find their way into fan culture.

For the book, I interviewed a pioneering video artist, identified in Textual Poachers as MVD. MVD described her videos as “half-and-half things,” neither “a Reader’s Digest of the shows we love” nor “fancy pictures to entertain the eye while we listen to our favorite music.” She explained:

Images pull out the words, emphasize the words, just as the words emphasize the pictures. If I’ve done a good job with a video, I can portray an emotion and I can hold that emotion throughout the song. I can bring a new level of depth to that emotion through my images and I can make you think about the program in a different way.

MVD suggested that the best fan videos could produce “layers of meaning,” being accessible at first glance to anyone with a casual familiarity with the program, offering a deeper experience to anyone who knew the program well, and a still deeper experience to someone who has been part of the fan community’s discussions around the show or read through the fan fiction surrounding a particular set of character relationships. MVD drew a distinction between convention videos, designed to be watched publicly in a general audience, and living room videos, designed to be watched in an intimate space by a group of friends who are already deeply immersed in the lore of a particular fan culture:

They can’t take the complex ones in a large group. They get hyper. They aren’t concentrating that deeply. They want to all laugh together or they want to share their feelings. So it’s got to be obvious enough that the people around them will share those emotions….The living room video is designed to be so complicated that you’d better know everything about the show or it isn’t going to make much sense. These videos are for a very small in-group that already understands what you are trying to say. It’s like fan writing. You don’t have to build up this entire world. You can rely on certain information.

MVD, at the time, could not have imagined what it might mean to watch a fan-made music video totally outside of the cultural context which fandom provided — to come across it on YouTube or Boing Boing and not have any access to the conversations which shaped these particular appropriations. For one thing, “Closer” is apt to be understood within fandom as a “constructed reality” video — that is, it creates a new story by linking together shots from the original series as opposed to using those shots simply to interpret or provide an alternative emotional perspective on events already depicted in the aired episodes. Such “constructed reality” works are extremely rare because they are so difficult to do well.

Such works certainly interpret the original series but not in a sense that would be recognized by most Literature teachers. They are not simply trying to recover what the original producers meant. They are trying to entertain hypotheticals, address what if questions, and propose alternative realities. Part of the pleasure of fan made media is seeing the same situations through multiple points of view, reading the same characters in radically different ways. The same artist might offer multiple constructions of the characters and their relationships across different works — simply to keep alive this play with different readings.

As one fan quoted in my new book, Convergence Culture, explains,

What I love about fandom is the freedom we have allowed ourselves to create and recreate our characters over and over again. Fanfic rarely sits still. It’s like a living, evolving thing, taking on its own life, one story building on another, each writer’s reality bouncing off another’s and maybe even melding together to form a whole new creation. A lot of people would argue that we’re not creative because we build on someone else’s universe rather than coming up with our own. However, I find that fandom can be extremely creative because we have the ability to keep changing our characters and giving them new life over and over. We can kill and resurrect them as often as we like. We can change their personalities and how they react to situations. We can take a character and make him charming and sweet or cold-blooded and cruel. We can give them an infinite, always-changing life rather than the single life of their original creation. We have given ourselves license to do whatever we want and it’s very liberating.

“Closer,” like other fanvids, was constructed as part of a conversation which the fan artists were having with the original text, with its authors, with other fans, and with themselves, whereas the video as seen outside of this context seems singular and unique. Or conversely, the video is read symptomatically — as speaking for all Star Trek fans when in fact, it borrows in some ways and breaks in others from the norms of this community.

Recurring Images

MVD was one of a number of pioneering video makers who took on the responsibility to pass their skills onto other women interested in working in the medium. She would host slumber parties at her house in Western Massachusetts where women would bring their vcrs and tapes and learn from each other. As I suggest in Convergence Culture, a lot of fan culture looks like folk culture processes applied to mass media content and these gathering have the feel of traditional quilting bees.

Through this process, the community started to distill the hundreds of hours of episodes around a series like Star Trek into recurring shots which carried a greater deal of emotional resonance and meaning to members of the community. These shots get used again and again, combined in new ways, mixed with different songs and lyrics, taking on different connotations and associations. The best of them remained highly potent. When I first watched the “Closer” video, I was struck by what a high percentage of the shots used there were part of the vocabulary of fan music video producers of fifteen years ago. Don’t believe me — check out the photographs from MVD’s “I Needed You” which I reproduced on pages 240-243 of Textual Poachers. Almost all of them appear in “Closer.”

Slash This

One reason that so many of these shots reappear is that they evoke a particular interpretation of the original material. Keep in mind that in many cases, these videos are watched by people who are also reading fan fiction and thus have come to understand the relationship between Kirk and Spock within the terms of the fan subgenre known as Slash. I was struck by how many bloggers referenced slash in relation to this video — the term is now known, but not widely understood, by many outside of the fan community itself. In Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers (which collects my previously published essays on participatory culture), I include “The Normal Female Interest in Men Bonking,” a collection of brief theoretical and critical statements about slash as a genre made by slash fan readers and writers which help to explain the persistence and popularity of this cultural practice.

For the moment, let’s say that slash is a form of fan-generated romance which centers on the relationship between two same sex (most often male) characters appropriated from the realm of popular fiction. Kirk and Spock were probably the original slash couple but slash did not become slash until the idea of same sex relations moved from Kirk and Spock to a whole range of other pairings. Before that, it was simply K/S with the slash standing in for a sexual relationship. K&S would have referred to a passionate but asexual friendship between the same characters. The people who write and read slash are mostly women — women of varied sexual orientations and interests — who see their work as bringing to the surface emotional dynamics that were masked in the original material.

Think about all of the times that Kirk would woo some blue-skinned woman and then abandon her again, insisting that his obligations to his ship and his crew would outweigh his personal romantic interests. Then consider what happens again and again across the series and the films whenever Spock is put at risk. Kirk will sacrifice his ship, his crew, his rank, everything he has, to get Spock back. There’s no question that his emotional commitment to Spock is the most important relationship in his life, even if the two men rarely speak directly about what that friendship means to them.

One of the most powerful moments in all of Star Trek comes in The Wrath of Khan when Spock finally puts into words his friendship for Kirk and gives his life to save the Enterprise. This scene seems key to understanding the emotional dynamics of slash, as I suggested in the Fans, Gamers, and Bloggers essay mentioned earlier:

When I try to explain slash to non-fans, I often reference that moment in Star Trek: The Wrath of Khan where Spock is dying and Kirk stands there, a wall of glass separating the two longtime buddies. Both of them are reaching out towards each other, their hands pressed hard against the glass, trying to establish physical contact. They both have so much they want to say and so little time to say it. Spock calls Kirk his friend, the fullest expression of their feelings anywhere in the series. Almost everyone who watches that scene feels the passion the two men share, the hunger for something more than what they are allowed. And, I tell my nonfan listeners, slash is what happens when you take away the glass. The glass, for me, is often more social than physical; the glass represents those aspects of traditional masculinity which prevent emotional expressiveness or physical intimacy between men, which block the possibility of true male friendship. Slash is what happens when you take away those barriers and imagine what a new kind of male friendship might look like. One of the most exciting things about slash is that it teaches us how to recognize the signs of emotional caring beneath all the masks by which traditional male culture seeks to repress or hide those feelings.

Slash is a form of erotic writing, which differs from traditional male-targeted pornography, because it is more interested in the emotional rather than the physical lives of its characters. Readers and writers get off imagining the characters having sex in part because they see sex as enabling a form of intimacy between these men which is denied them on the program and denied most men within our culture. The construction of slash depends on reading certain looks and gestures exchanged amongst the characters as showing some hidden emotional truths and so song videos are often presented as visual evidence in support of a slash hypothesis about the series. Fans can point to the screen and say that you can see it in their eyes, these men really care about each other.

How Far to Pon Farr?

The opening title to “Closer” asks “What if they hadn’t made it to Vulcan on time.” This title references a specific tradition of pon farr stories. Pon Farr is the Vulcan mating season which occurs every seven years and is deeply disabilitating (can drive people insane or kill them if they do not make it back to their home planet and mate.) This concept emerged in the Classic ST episode, “Amok Time,” written by science fiction writer Theodore Sturgeon. Many of the earliest K/S stories used pon farr as a device to push Kirk and Spock into bed with each other. Kirk surely would overcome his inhibitions about gay sex if doing so would allow him to save his friend’s life. As slash became more widely accepted, there have been far fewer pon farr stories; the characters are no longer seen as requiring extreme situations to get them in bed together. So, in adopting this pon farr frame, “Closer” pays tribute to the foremothers of slash.

Pon Farr stories often contain suggestions of sexual violence — as does “Closer” — themes which remain highly controversial inside fan circles. I am certain that the images of sexual violence here (specifically drawn from the use of the Vulcan Mind Meld in the original series accompanied by lyrics about “violation,” “desecration” and “penetration”) account for why some viewers outside of fandom found this particular video disquieting. This video is disquieting to many fans because of its strong suggestion of rape.

Ose and More Ose

One striking feature of “Closer” is its angsty tone — created in part by the choice of soundtrack, in part by the ragged and grainy reproduction of the images, and in part by the selection of images which stress the emotional distance rather than closeness of the protagonists. Fans have a term, “ose,” that captures this emotional quality: it comes from the expression “ose and more ose” (i.e. morose).

A number of writers have suggested that they expected to laugh and were instead moved or disturbed by what they saw in this video. Fan music videos adopt a range of different tones — some do indeed welcome the uncomfortable laughter when one first starts to reread these images outside of their original heterosexual inflections and start to appreciate the pleasure of appropriating these shots for alternative interpretations. Others affectionately poke fun at the protagonists, choosing their most foolish or clumsy moments or choosing images that look especially suggestive out of context. (T. Jonesy and Killa have produced a number of other Classic Trek vids which adopt these more comic and playful tones.) Others play it more seriously, teaching us to respect the emotional truths they find through their recontextualizing of these images. For me, “Closer” has a kind of emotional distance — despite all of the angst — that sets it apart from many other fan-made videos. Ironically, it is perhaps this emotional distance which has allowed many who are not Trek fans to embrace the aesthetics of this particular work. Many slash vids are hot — this one is cool.

Porn Again?

Another striking feature of “Closer” is the insertion of porn shots amidst the footage taken from the original series. I have certainly seen this (relatively uncommon) practice among some fan music video makers but historically, such explicit videos did not circulate outside the fan community, so it was striking to see this practice out in public view. This is perhaps illustrative of what has happened as slash and fan vids have entered a networked culture. New people have been drawn to the form at a rate that strips the ability of the community to inculcate them into their norms. Old taboos are being shattered right and left often in highly public ways that would distress older fans who felt they had reasons for avoiding such public scrutiny.

Another striking aspect of “Closer” is that it is being circulated as publicly as it is. Several years ago, I sparked some controversy in the Star Wars fan cinema world when I argued that the rules of the official competition hosted by Atom films were gender-biased because they recognized forms of media production — parody and documentary — most closely associated with male fans and excluded outright those forms — most notably music video — most closely associated with female fans. Many of those angry by these statements asserted that they had never seen any films made by female Star Wars fans and that they were certain such works did not exist. I saw that as validation of my argument because I had seen a large number of music videos produced by female Star Wars fans which had not been able to get into public distribution. Those who had seen some of the music videos argued that they did not belong in the competition because they were “derivative,” that is, because they used found footage. In fact, though, “Closer” shows pretty well that these fan media makers can generate original interpretations through their manipulation and recontextualization of these images. Whatever you want to say about it, “Closer” makes a statement about the original material.

When I did Poachers, the music video makers were the only fans who asked not to be named in the book: they were concerned because their raw materials drew clips directly from the films and television episodes but also drew songs from top recording artists. They felt most exposed to legal prosecution and felt they had the weakest case that their works would be protected under Fair Use.

Today, some of these women do share their videos via the web but without much fanfare, on sites that are only known within a relatively closed fan community. Fans have learned how to use the web to make their content accessible to those already in the know while decoupling their content from access via most search engine. It’s quite likely that in the current case, the artists lost control over the circulation of “Closer” and that it went more public than they intended. That’s also part of living in a world where amateur media often circulates virally and without any direct attribution. Few of the blogs which have mentioned “Closer” even acknowledge the artist’s names even though they are featured prominently in the video itself and there may not have been an expectation that whoever posted it to YouTube needed to respect the artists’ choices about where and how it should be distributed. We still accord much greater respect to commercial artists than grassroots artists. This is a video which has been circulating within fandom for some time without getting this level of public notice and so many fans have been started by its sudden visibility.

The circulation of “Closer” outside of the fan community is apt to be causing concern not only for the original creators of this material but also for many others within the fan community. I suspect their reactions are mixed.

On the one hand, it is exciting to see some work within this tradition get some public visibility and respect. On the other, its visibility increases the likelihood that the Powers that Be will come crashing down on the whole practice of fan music videos, there must be disappointment that it is being discussed outside of the larger context of many people producing work within this tradition, and there will be some concern that this work includes some controversial practices — such as porn inserts or the themes of sexual violence — that may further enflame the situation.

You may note that I am not offering links here to other fanvids. I have made it a policy not to send people to fan-produced material, even if it is on the web and therefore theoretically “public” without their permission. I am sending pointers to this video only because it is already the subject of such public circulation and discussion that not doing so would amount to closing the barn door after the cow have already gotten out.

Thanks to Cynthia Jenkins for her help in preparing this post.


  1. It’s quite likely that in the current case, the artists lost control over the circulation of “Closer” and that it went more public than they intended.

    Which is precisely what happened. Killa’s Trek/Monty Python vid went up on Youtube and then got metafiltered and boing-boinged, and then her site went down under the load. But someone must have snagged Closer while it was still available, and put it up publicly. The site is now password-protected, in part to save the bandwidth fees and in part to protect Killa and the other vidders from legal liability.

    Most vidders these days password their sites, and in my searches of Youtube, the only vids by vidders I recognize are from sites which are not passworded. In other words, fans from within the community recognize and respect vidders’ concern about distribution. People unfamiliar with the community are the ones violating fannish norms. Not intending to put anyone at risk, of course, but without any awareness of why this could be a problem, or of the long fannish understanding that vids stay underground.

    The Washington Post had a chat with the gal who did a bunch of the Brokeback vids, and it was enlightening to realize that neither the reporter running the chat, nor the vidder herself seemed to be aware of the long history of vidding and entire communities built up about the activity.

  2. This is so wild. I just saw that vid for the first time yesterday, and now here it is on your blog. I appreciate your discussion of slash through the Star Trek lense, it’s a very interesting perspective for those fans who are active in more recently established fandoms. Slash doesn’t even warrant raised eyebrows anymore.

  3. Thank you so much for this post.

    I am a vidder and an enthusiastic reader of your books, and I really appreciate what you’ve done here. One of the things that interests me most as a vidder is the way we aren’t able to control the “spin” applied to our vids once they leave the relative safety of fandom and float off into the great unknown. When things like “Brokeback to the Future” started showing up on YouTube, I knew our days were numbered — the mainstream was going to get a hold of vids, and the mainstream wouldn’t know what the hell to do with them. Fans have been achieving some kind of legitimacy lately, but the particular qualities of woman-generated fan material still seem to inspire mockery among non-fans (and even some male fans). So it’s great to see a respected member of fandom and academia speak publicly on what this work means.

    Like most vidders, I also fear the descent of TPTB, the C&Ds, the lawsuits that I believe will inevitably hit some members of our community — and hit them hard. My stuff is behind a password now, because I fear legal reprisals. Killa, a dear friend of mine, has been vaguely mortified at all the attention, and I devoutly hope that she doesn’t become the test case we’re all afraid of.

  4. Thank you so much for this post. I have a lot of mixed feelings about vidding and slash being so public, and you’ve hit on most of them.

  5. My feelings about what has happened with “Closer” and what may come of this in the near- or relatively-near future are very, very mixed, as I imagine are Laura Shapiro’s and Melina’s (earlier posters in this thread), and Killa’s. In some ways, it is an exciting development; a broadening of our viewership, if you will. But there is a sense among the long-standing community of vidders that this may be a watershed moment when, rather than receiveing accolades for and understanding of the development of a nearly 30-year-old art form, vids will be so misunderstood due to the non-fans’ complete unfamiliarity with the visual and aural vocabulary of vidding, the lack of context and history and metatext, that vids and vidders will fall into the “whatever” abyss: “Anyone can put video clips to music; what’s so special?”

    “How to Watch a Fan-Vid” is one small drop in the ocean of the internet, but it is an important one. So thank you, Henry, for possibly getting the ball rolling on more essays about our art. (And thank you for pointing out that ridiculous gender bias in the Star Wars fan video culture. The same thing happened with young men who made videos out of characters from animated video games – they thought they’d invented the art form too.)

  6. First of all, the video is amazing — I never would have thought it would be possible to create such a deep, dramatic, emotional relationship between Kirk and Spock. I’ve heard of slash, and knew it was originally K/S that gave it the name, but I’ve never really read or seen any until now. The part where Kirk runs away from a suddenly violent Spock is particularly powerful.

    It is also revelatory to get such a concise and interesting introduction to a community that I never knew existed. I’m glad to see it getting some exposure, but I also empathize with the lawsuit-fearful creators.

    I realize that this may be exactly what the community does NOT want, but I’d love to see some YouTube/other website links to some exemplary examples of the work the vidder community has been doing all these years.

    Keep up the good work – I hope the publicity only does good things for your work and your community.

  7. Ramby Thoughts Ahead – probably quite obvious to anyone involved in fandom, though I suppose that only illustrates your point.


    Speaking of fannish context and reference points for this particular vid: for me, someone who watches a great number of fanvids across multiple fandoms, as I watched this vid I could not help but think about it in relationship to another vid using the same same song: a Spike/Angel (from BtVS/AtS) vid.

    And this made me think about how in most of the slash that I encounter there seem to be two “poles” or “modes” in what people find “slashy:” there’s the comrades-in-arms variety which you mention in your post and then also the extremely popular tendency to eroticize antagonistic relationships between men, reading male-on-male aggression as an expression of repressed homoerotic feelings. Harry/Draco and Mulder/Kychek would be two excellent examples of the latter. Read within that context, the content of this vid is not all that surprising, despite the fact that I myself, tend to think of K/S as a “friendlier,” more romantic ‘ship. Although of course, these are extremely overly-simplistic categories and there are both meldings of the two as well as a wide variety of other situations that can be slashed. Spike/Angel, in fact, is a ‘ship that vacillates between and encompasses both a “buddies” and an “enemies” dynamic (not to mention the tropes of rivalry for a woman’s affection and the “familial” tone of this particular relationship, what with the increasing amount of overt incest fic). And within Harry/Draco fanwork, there is a (controversial) tendency to “soften” the relationship and provide them with romantic or domestic trappings.

    Because yes, slash is essentially always a female re-reading of representations of masculinity (there are, however, a minority of gay male slashers as well as the less wide-spread existence of femslash, etc.) but there seems to be an ever-widening variety of forms. However, most of these share in common the fact that they take a microscope to media representations of men and emphasize or “uncover” the interiority and emotionality of men.

    Thanks for your post. It has inspired a great deal of thought and discussion in the corners of fandom I inhabit, and that’s always good.

  8. Hello, I haven’t ever posted before but I am a long time reader of the C3 blog @ MIT. I have a rather unusual request. I am a film studies student and I am working on a presentation about the current state of Godardian film criticism, commenting on a film through film(or other art forms) instead of through writing, and I would like to screen this Star Trek piece if possible. However, I would also like to request permission from the video’s authors before I do so, and I have found no way of contacting them. Hopefully you can point me in the right direction here. Thanks for the wonderful articles, and your book has been a great resource.

  9. Nearly a year after it was written,

    I just got pointed to this blog by a post from a slash fan. Very insightful look at slash and slash vids. I’m a K/S writer and shipper (relationshipper) and I know Killa was not happy about this vid being up for public consumption. It was and is meant for a more private audience in the slash community where most of us know each other by name and reputation.

    It’s nice to see a well-done article which doesn’t ridicule our passion for what is, make no mistake, feminist romantica (the erotica isn’t always necessary, but the *romance* is). The love is there, in canon, whether or not anyone sees it as becoming physical or not. I like to think that by years from now we won’t care about silliness like gender and racial, even species–as long as the potential lover(s) are consenting adults. There isn’t enough love in our little world, as it is.

    There are many motivations to the passion for fanfic, but I can say the best fanfic writers and vidders are creative in ways the original writers may not have imagined. (Though some may have seen inklings…and created a tag for them.)

    Thanks again.

  10. Susan Stewart says:

    An aspect of the video I found intriguing is the flirtation on Kirk’s part, prior to the rape. He touches Spock, (a taboo with Vulcans in the Trek universe), stares into his eyes, in general, flirts with him. There is the motif of playing with fire, and then getting burned.

  11. Third Mouse says:

    I didn’t realize there was anything in your book touching on fan music videos, but that chapter sounds worth looking up, however outdated. I’ve been looking for published writing on the subject of fanvids, and — for understandable reasons — it is extremely hard to find. (I’ve found only one other article so far, and that focuses on legal aspects.) Perhaps there’s something out there in the gawking news media, but a respectful and understanding post from outside the vidding community is pretty exciting stuff.

    One point in this post I’d disagree with, however, is your statement that constructed reality is rare because it’s so hard to do well. It may be that constructed reality is particularly difficult, but there are an awful lot of shamelessly shoddy vids out there, not to mention a number of amazingly talented vidders who could do anything in a vid they wanted to, and between these two you’d think more constructed reality would be produced than (in my experience) actually is. My theory of why constructed reality is not a popular vid genre is that those who are really interested in creating a whole new story go the route of writing fan fiction, which is freestyle and not limited to what you can fake with clips from the show, and that those who choose to create music videos have a different agenda that is better served by vidding. As you noted in your section on slash, vids have the power of acting as direct evidence for whatever ‘argument’ the vid is making, whether that’s ‘wow, this show is so funny/sad/gay’ or ‘wow, our culture’s fixation on and eroticisation of violence against women is disturbing’. In this way vids can be a more elegant and eloquent than text-based analyses of audiovisual media. The function of vids as criticism also explains why the insertion of footage from outside the source text(s) is relatively uncommon, since it could be seen as falsifying evidence.

    Another point worth noting is that not all fan music videos are primarily created by women. I believe anime music videos (AMVs) are usually the creation of male fans, and apparently have a significantly different culture.

    Lastly, you speak of the ‘vocabulary’ of vidders in reference to commonly used clips. This vocabulary has developed over the years as the practice (and consumption) of vidding has expanded and intensified. Some clips have been vidded and overvidded to the point that using a certain clip (for example, in a Buffy vid, a clip of the jump from the tower in the Season 5 finale) will provoke yawns from the audience, who have seen it all before. Experienced vidders are therefore more likely to use oblique references to those clips to invoke the same associations in a subtler fashion. At this point there is not only a required fan vocabulary for appreciating vids, but also a required “grammar”, a knowledge of how to “read” fanvids. This is the greatest hurdle in getting new people to appreciate vids, since beyond the more basic slapstick and parody vids, they have no idea how to read a vid, and so it looks to them like a semicoherent collection of clips thrown together and put to music. I notice myself going back to vids I watched years ago and finally understanding why they are considered such masterpieces when before I was just confused and put off. It’s very frustrating to show the most talented and insightful work in the medium and watch it get less appreciation and respect than the crudest humor vid.

    I’d like to add a bunch of links and quotes, but it’s hard to say where the line is drawn. In terms of fannish etiquette, are you effectively One of Us as a fan, or does your position in academia make you part of The Establishment?

    Editor’s Response: I would say that the real test is not who I am but who my readers are. I have always seen myself as One of Us, but this blog reaches a significant number of people who would be considered the Powers That Be. For that reason, there are certain fannish themes I choose not to explore here — and certainly wouldn’t post links to fannish work here without the permission of the creators. In this case, I choose to do so because the video was already in such broad circulation and I didn’t know how to get in touch with the author. I have since regretted that decision and would handle the situation differently today.

  12. Zauberlehrling! says:

    I received the book “Textual Poarchers” yesterday and I am really interested in that video “I needed you”. Where can I find it?

    Editor’s note: Unfortunately, “I Needed You,” and the other music vids I discuss in Poachers came at a pre-YouTube moment when fanvids were not widely distributed. Some reader may know of a place it lives on the web but I don’t.